Here we go! This month’s Carnival of Journalism question:
Have you applied design thinking in your work? Has it been useful? Why or why not?
Or, Plan B: How do you get your own creative juices flowing? What sparks innovation in your own thinking, your newsroom or classroom?
Blog your responses to either question and post a link in the comment section below, tweet it (hashtag #jcarn) by Feb. 24 and I’ll post a wrap up by Feb. 28. Many thanks to Carnival master David Cohn for keeping the Carnival running!
Plenty has been written about the need for news organizations to be more innovative and entrepreneurial. Now the challenge is how to be innovative, both at the organizational and individual level. Design thinking is one process that many people have found useful for sparking innovation.
The Knight Foundation recently selected 24 projects to receive $35,000 each from the Knight Prototype Fund. As a first step, Knight provided each of the grantees an intensive two-day workshop in design thinking. [ADDENDUM Feb. 17: See this useful post from the Knight Foundation on using design thinking for community information needs.]
In December, the New York Times featured a story on the D.school at Stanford, which champions design thinking, calling out the work of two students who created a news-reading app bought by LinkedIn for $90 million.
What is design thinking?
Design thinking is a process that helps journalists think more explicitly about their work from the perspective of the people who read, watch, listen and share what journalists create.
This doesn’t mean that journalists give up their independence or dish up what they think audiences want. It’s not about focus groups or reader surveys. It requires, first of all, letting go of what we think the problem/story is and really listening to and observing the people who are experiencing whatever we’re concerned with. It starts with people, not technology.
Choosing people to talk with is key. Once the interviews are complete, the team focuses on looking for connections from the various interviews that lead to new insights about the challenge at hand. Discerning people’s needs (articulated or not) and how journalists might better respond to them, can spark new ways of approaching any problem or goal.
The next step also subverts traditional newsroom routines. Rather than planning to make a change and writing memos and forming committees, design thinking encourages people to sketch ideas, get feedback and iterate their ideas quickly. Rapid prototyping forces ideas to be articulated, tested, and improved in a short and low cost way. “Demo don’t memo” can be a useful mantra in faculty meetings or news meetings.
Building, implementing and marketing are separate activities from the design thinking process. The usefulness of the approach is in coming up with innovative ideas for addressing whatever the need is: a better process in the newsroom or classroom, a better story idea, better storytelling, better news product. It’s one way to improve routines, habits and products that we have long stopped seeing.
Design thinking is not new (read this wonderful article on Wicked Problems in Design Thinking from 1992) nor is it new to the news business (see these Gannett videos from 2008) and it’s not always well received (Gannett partnered with design thinking firm IDEO in Detroit in 2008 to some ridicule). Plenty of people have written about the limitations of design thinking. Helen Walters wrote a thoughtful piece in Fast Co. about what design thinking can and cannot do:
…design thinking does not replace the need for design specialists, nor does it magically appear out of some black box. Design thinking isn’t fairy dust. It’s a tool to be used appropriately. It might help to illuminate an answer but it is not the answer in and of itself.
Instead, it turns up insights galore, and there is real value and skill to be had from synthesizing the messy, chaotic, confusing and often contradictory intellect of experts gathered from different fields to tackle a particularly thorny problem.
No tool is a panacea for every problem. But plenty of people are finding success with incorporating design thinking skillfully at the right moments.
For example, media entrepreneur start-up accelerator Matter uses design thinking to foster the development of projects such as Zeega and OpenWatch. metaLAB projects at Harvard incorporate design thinking. Poynter wrote about design thinking at the Voice of San Diego and a news project in Brazil.
Have you applied design thinking in your work? Has it been useful? Why or why not?
Or, Plan B: How do you get your own creative juices flowing? What sparks innovation in your own thinking, your newsroom or classroom?
Blog your answers, post links in the comments below, share on Twitter (hashtag #jcarn) and I’ll provide a round-up of the responses after the Feb 28 deadline.
More resources on design thinking:
TED talk by IDEO CEO Tim Brown: Designers — Think Big!
TED talk by IDEO founder David Kelley: How to build your creative confidence
Stanford’s d.School: Virtual Crash Course in Design Thinking
Helen Walters, Fast Co.:The Seven Deadly Sins that Choke out Innovation
Book by Jeanne Liedtka, Andrew King, and Kevin Bennett: Solving Problems with Design Thinking: Ten Stories of What Works, Columbia University Press
Sarah Soule: Why Design Thinking Is an Effective Tool for Social Entrepreneurs
As I’ve written elsewhere (From the Teaching Hospital to the Entrepreneurial Model of Journalism Education), I think the metaphor of a ‘teaching hospital’ for journalism education is problematic. But setting aside the limitations of the concept, Eric Newton recently gave a speech to Dutch educators that includes three useful suggestions for organizing journalism education:
(1) build capacity for emergency journalistic first aid
(2) run clinics for practice in community journalism
(3) create entrepreneurial labs for experimenting with new tools and practices
It’s worth watching/reading: The ‘teaching hospital’ — a goal for journalism education
The “Newton Triad” can be a useful way to categorize the activities of journalism schools. But clinics/labs/classes/skunk works/programs — whatever we call them — we need to better understand and provide what our students (and faculties) need to be able to question, analyze and rigorously test old assumptions and new opportunities for journalistic practice. Watch George Brock of City University of London reflect on Eric Newton’s speech here, making a related argument:
Working at a university is interesting. One spends a great deal of time with people who never age. To counter the angst this can occasionally cause, and to remind myself that I’ve arrived where I am by choice, not accident, I’ve written the following letter from my young self to my present self. (Thanks to this month’s Carnival of Journalism for inspiring this reflective moment.)It’s Christmas, 1977. I’m a junior in college and still haven’t chosen a major. My strategy has been to take classes that sound interesting. My father gives me another lecture and pulls out the latest Berkeley catalog. He tells me to write down every course I’ve taken and figure out which major will get me the closest to graduating. It takes me a number of hours to work through by hand all the possibilities but I finally figure it out: Political Economy of Natural Resources. The following semester I declare my major in a subject I don’t even understand and by May, 1978 I’ve graduated.
Now it’s Christmas, 1980, and I’ve nearly finished my master’s degree in Science, Technology and Public Policy from George Washington University, another degree I only partially understand. I am facing a choice: do I stay in Washington DC and look for the perfect DC career job? Or do I move back to California, my family and a boyfriend I’ve been breaking up with for years? A professional job in an exciting town or a friendship I need closure on?
I decide I can find a job anywhere if I try hard enough; finding what would make me happy might be harder. So I choose California, heading back west where my parents and grandparents also made their way.
Within two months I am engaged. The boyfriend turned out to be even better than I remembered. But now we face a choice together: do we look for career jobs and figure out where to settle down? Or do we take this chance to do something crazy?
We go for crazy. We work temp jobs for the Forest Service. I drive a garbage truck called the Maggot Wagon. I work as a temporary clerical worker at Pier 39 in SF. We save all our money and decide to marry on the sixth anniversary of our first kiss.
By Christmas, 1981 we are in New Zealand. We eat strawberries and play tennis. In April we fly to Australia. We spend two months working temp jobs in Sydney. We spend a week on the Great Barrier Reef. We drive across the outback and break down.
In August we fly to Bali, totally unprepared for life in a foreign language. We figure it out and spend my birthday at an archeological site on Java. After a month we go to Singapore, another month in Malaysia. We find our way to a baby elephant training camp in Thailand and spend time in Chiang Mai. In October, we land in Calcutta, seasoned travelers.
We trek for a month in Nepal and eat our Thanksgiving turkey in Kathmandu. By Christmas we are in Delhi and we spend sunrise on New Year’s Day at the Taj Mahal. We ride camels in Rajastan and tour a toothpaste factory in Bombay. In the spring we head for Europe, luxuriating in a tiny pension in Rome and a cooking for a Servas host in Paris. We skip Frankfurt but land in London with a sister for a month.
And then it’s over. We return to California, broke, happy, together. We find jobs at a non-profit in Marin County. We decide to go back to graduate school and have children at the same time. We spend seven years living in a 500-square foot apartment in Berkeley, have three children, live on the cheap, scrape by.
As your younger self, I want you to remember other Christmas’s too. The one in Strasbourg, France, when you took the kids to Europe for seven months and taught in Spain. The year you spent New Year’s with your son in Patagonia. The Christmas just a few years ago when all five of you drove from Rome to Switzerland in an old van and went skiing. The years you spent holidays playing bunco with friends in the Bay area.
Remember? And now, now I see into the future — it’s Christmas, 2013. You are worried that you’re not productive enough. You think you never spent enough time working as a professional journalist. You never won any prizes. You haven’t landed any big grants. You didn’t submit any conference papers this fall. You know you need to be writing more research articles for publication. You need to grade faster and answer all your email. You think you should have paid more attention to your career and achieved more.
I’m writing this letter to remind you that you made some really good choices back then. You know what? You just celebrated your 32nd wedding anniversary. Your children are happy and doing their own crazy things. Your students will get over waiting for grades. You can still write something worth reading. You’ll dump all your email and no one will suffer.
So … here’s my advice to my older self: Own your choices. Remember what’s important long term and remind your students. Live your values and don’t get caught up in comparisons. Don’t play it safe. Keep making those risky choices you made when you were 21, and when you’re 90, you’ll be really glad you were wild in your 50s.
This month’s Carnival of Journalism delivers a rich conversation about the future of college media, full of excellent advice about what college media could be and should be: a local community news source, entrepreneurial, innovative, radically experimental, process rather than product oriented, and ready to drop the “student” label.
So, how do we get from here to there? And what is the role of journalism educators in this transition?
I can speak only to the situation on the Nevada campus; mileage varies in terms of how this might apply more universally. But on our campus the journalism school has no official relationship with any of the college media outlets. We don’t offer course credit, internship credit, formal mentoring or resources. Occasionally editors will ask for advice informally or form an advisory board that lasts only as long as one editor’s tenure.
The result is that when we have strong editors and engaged students, the newspaper, magazine and budding radio station provide an invaluable experience, preparing students for jobs at respected national media outlets and serving the campus community. But when we don’t have adept students with the passion and means to work long hours for little or no pay, the outlets don’t get close to fulfilling their potential.
Serious innovation isn’t going to happen just because we hope it will. Short-term commitments, financial pressures and inexperience are barriers to innovation that we as educators need to address much more directly.
What are some levers educators could employ to help the process along?
Value the work: Consider offering course credit or internship credit for participating in campus media. This would enable students to commit more time to their efforts and cause educators to take the work more seriously.
Improve recognition of high quality, innovative work: When students produce exceptional work, take notice. When they do something radically experimental, recognize it. Encourage regular post-production quality review; build a school culture that recognizes and makes explicit standards of excellence in regards to journalistic quality and to innovation.
Help students build support networks that inspire innovation: Invite alumni, community leaders, faculty in other colleges, and student media leaders from other campuses to visit and talk about innovations in community and college media.
Build skills related to innovation: Conduct design thinking workshops or enable students to attend design workshops elsewhere; facilitate entrepreneurial learning through courses or others means; sponsor films, events and speakers focused on processes of innovation; teach prototyping and usability testing; partner with other units on campus and community businesses/organizations engaged in innovation and entrepreneurship.
Identify new roles within media organizations: Most college media are built around long-established newsroom roles: reporter/editor/photographer. Educators are in a good position to talk about emerging roles in news media: community managers, social media coordinators, visualization experts, data journalists, coders, interactive designers, multimedia storytellers and more traditional roles of increasing importance: investigative journalists and breaking news teams. Help students see the possibilities of specialized focus for themselves and their student news organizations. Facilitate partnerships, online training resources and courses to help students learn the skills necessary for the jobs they want to pursue.
Facilitate connections with the local community: If campus news media are to expand to the surrounding community as advocated by Aram Zucker-Scharff, help build connections with the local community by embedding community relationships in course work and inviting local community leaders to speak and engage with the school.
Increase interaction with faculty and students from strategic communications and marketing: These folks specialize in engagement and attention; news students could learn a lot from some of their approaches. It’s not enough to simply push content. Understanding audiences and what people pay attention to and why will improve the findability, shareability and relevance of journalism.
Involve advertising students: The advertising model for online journalism needs as much (or more) innovation as the news side. Encourage advertising faculty to engage with these questions in their classes and use college news organizations as examples and clients.
Provide seed funding: Encourage small teams of students to build collaborations and college news experiments by sponsoring challenge grants, seed grants and securing local funding and in-kind donations.
Require students to create and maintain online portfolios of their work: Show students the value of creating a professional online identity and of producing work that is evidence of their talents, skills and experience. Stress the value of creating a college media experience that helps them produce this work.
College media has the potential to:
- Provide excellent training for students for their future careers
- Make valuable contributions to local communities through journalism
- Build noteworthy examples of sustainable journalism for the future
- (Addendum: Teach students habits of citizenship that will benefit them regardless of their future careers (as well as strengthen our democracies)
How else might we facilitate this potential?
Wired just published a thought provoking interview with Andrew DeVigal (thanks to Craig Silverman at Spundge for the tip!) in which DeVigal speaks to the question of whether media companies (in this case, The New York Times) should become a technology company:
…Part of the challenge there is that the New York Times, which is a media company would then become a software company. Not to say that isn’t the right thing to do, but is that what the Times wants? It’d be a pretty major shift in mindset and operations, you know, to support customers and support the technology. Do we really want to see teams of journalists turned into teams of support technologists?
It makes me wonder if a team at Apple ever asked themselves: Do we really want to turn ourselves into a music company? Or whether the early team at Microsoft that decided to adapt an encyclopedia for the Web (remembering Encarta) worried about whether their engineers knew enough to create media. Will journalists lose their critical space in the network because they can’t imagine how to reconfigure themselves?
DeVigal goes on to describe the next frontier in interactive news, which to me reinforces one of the reasons why media and technology have to move closer together:
Trying to capture a narrative around data is still the missing link. How do we blend interactive story telling with information?
We’ve recently reconfigured our curriculum to include narrative, data and social journalism courses. But what I get from DeVigal is that after these foundational courses, we should be pushing ourselves to integrate these concepts and produce something new that marries media and technology. We can’t tell stories on one page and display data on another; these two forms of information need to be integrated in ways we’re just beginning to invent.
DeVigal emphasized the need to more deeply engage readers, and one way to do that is through games. Let the reader simulate driving a car while texting, or play different roles within a documentary of the Haitian earthquake. We have to experiment to understand how to arrest attention and help people focus on the message/the story/the issue we are presenting. Integrating narrative with data through the framework of a game may be the closest template we have at the moment for thinking through a new form of news.
DeVigal’s final advice on what we should be teaching:
Strong Storytelling Skills (“Know Story” he said)
Facility with Software (being able to whip out an idea is valuable)
Ability to Collaborate (absolutely critical)
If journalism/media companies are to become tech companies, then journalism schools have to become much, much more tech saavy. We who prepare students: Are we preparing them to jump start new types of news, with the attitudes necessary to grok the merging of numbers, stories and social?
We can’t start the journalism curriculum by drilling AP style, the inverted pyramid and 1:30 second news packages and expect students to come out on the other end with new ideas. Maybe it’s on us to become Schools of Information, in all its forms, to make sure we stay in the game.
I think it helps everyone when an entity is able to decide what it’s about and build an idea. Lots can be done at a smaller scale, too, and I am excited to see how different programs, including ours, answer that challenge. I see a great need for programs to develop innovative products using all open-source, freely available tools, or to use old tools in new ways. There’s plenty of invention and experimentation to be done, and bravo to anyone who gets the traction and support to unfold a solid strategy.
Eric Newton, senior adviser to the president at Knight Foundation, published another post in his series about journalism education this week: “Do universities hear the critics of journalism education?” His post identifies important directions for where journalism education should go — but his prescription for how to get there is way off the mark.
His analysis includes this excellent graphic laying out the transition in journalism school curriculum; these markers reflect the evolving focus in the industry as well as in journalism education:
Urging schools to focus more on the Web, on community engagement, on creating new story forms and to respond more fully to other content creators makes perfect sense. Judging from the enthusiastic response to panels on these topics at recent conferences, many faculty members are in agreement.
The rub is in what to do about it.
Eric’s solutions are:
- Make sure journalism programs remain independent from other academic units
- Keep scholars away from running journalism programs
- Hire professionals and make them equal with scholars
- Create professional doctorates
- Make journalism schools nimble
- Connect with the rest of the university
- Innovate with digital tools
- Master more open, collaborative tools
- Become teaching hospitals
I have three concerns about these recommendations:
(1) Hiring more professionals isn’t going to fix journalism education. There are probably more change-resistent professionals in j-schools than out-of-touch academics. Some of the biggest obstacles to change in journalism programs are professionals who defend old habits and socialize students into believing that ‘real’ journalists make fun of Twitter and would never ‘engage’ with the audience and taint their independence.
The truth is both scholars and professionals can be innovative or resistent to change — the difference has a lot more to do with attitude and mindset than training. My concern is that reviving the anti-intellectual thread in American journalism that has contributed in some measure to the current crisis doesn’t help journalism education or the industry and in fact could do a great deal of harm. Simply adding more professionals to journalism programs — absent other changes — will not make schools more nimble, open, or innovative and in many cases could slow these initiatives.
(2) Arguing for large stand alone journalism programs overlooks other models that might generate new ideas. Journalism programs have to connect with the rest of the university — on this we are in agreement. Whether that’s best done between colleges, or between colleagues within colleges, is an open question. For example, journalism faculty could play critical roles in interdisciplinary programs that combine computer science, art, business and other disciplines, regardless of how the journalism program is configured.
Eric argues that journalism schools should be both large and nimble, a difficult mix. Rather than dictating institutional structures, however, why not rigorously experiment with different types of programs, large and small, in various configurations? ASU, Missouri and Columbia are like The New York Times — institutions to aspire to but not applicable to every organization in every university.
(3) The teaching hospital metaphor is of limited usefulness in journalism education. A colleague and I are presenting a paper at ISOJ in April that explores this topic in much more depth. The primary component of our argument is that teaching hospitals focus on delivery of content — the same mindset as the professional news organizations that are imploding. They are all about supplying more and better journalism.
But as the demand for what we supply is radically shifting, we need fresh ways of working, not formal institutional structures with external obligations. We need flexibility and nimbleness to build one product one semester and something entirely different another semester. In an era of tight budgets, investing in year-round news making infrastructure works only for the largest, most well-funded journalism education programs.
The students and journalists who infiltrate the rest of the working news world need more flexible and entrepreneurial training. More journalism programs should be about educating the future disruptors. We need more than ‘teaching hospitals’ to create new routines and practices and help students understand that journalism includes a wide array of important work that might not look anything like the front page of the Washington Post or the ABC Evening News.
The Knight Foundation has been the leading funder of innovation in journalism. The Knight News Challenge grants and Information Needs of Community program have kickstarted an explosion of entrepreneurial initiatives. But the foundation’s message on journalism education has been much more mixed. More good work is going on than is apparent in the broadsides aimed at the academy.
We hear our critics — they are sitting in the front rows of our classes every day. What we need is the equivalent of News Challenge grants for educational initiatives. Empowering the kind of thinking that has gone on in that competition — encouraging educators, students and others to build on the disruptive transformation going on in education as well as journalism — could remake journalism programs from the slow moving creatures that Eric criticizes to truly transformational programs.
Curriculum revision used to be a chore undertaken once a decade or so, as faculty came and went and technologies and industry practices changed. Now the process is nearly continuous. Most faculty I know rewrite their syllabi every semester and sometimes mid-stream. We have a permanent curriculum committee that devotes significant time to re-designing courses on a regular basis.
Our most recent conversations have focused on the news ‘track.’ We voted several years ago to eliminate the print and broadcast sequences, but defining what news students should know has been an ongoing conversation. After interviewing alumni, analyzing job announcements and looking at trends in online journalism, we came up with three roles that seem to be growing in importance among journalists: digital storytellers, data journalists and social media managers. We are redesigning our curriculum as a series of “buckets” in which we can pour new content as it seems appropriate. We are using these three roles as key competencies, encouraging students to become expert in one area and at least conversant in a second.
This chart outlines our current curriculum for news students:
Le Monde has announced its own educational program designed to expand the diversity of its journalists. Rather than hiring from the ranks of college graduates trained in journalism, the respected daily newspaper is sponsoring a competition to select 68 aspiring journalists from many different backgrounds, who will then be mentored by Le Monde journalists:
France’s Le Monde launches plan to lure fresh talent- and readers- into the fold
…Le Monde Academie, launched Wednesday, is a two-part competition and training programme that will offer 68 aspiring journalists from diverse backgrounds the opportunity to be mentored by the newspaper’s staff and published within its pages. It will culminate a year from now, with three ambitious young talents receiving a rare prize: jobs within one of France’s best-respected media companies. ….With the Monde academie, the 68-year-old daily is seeking new voices from diverse socio-economic and cultural backgrounds, which will attract new eyes to a publication that has traditionally been written by and for an educated elite. (Editors Weblog)
This approach made me think of the findings of a Betty Medsger study that showed prize-winning journalists tended to come from disciplines besides journalism. Medsger found:
- 59 percent of print journalists who won Pulitzer Prizes never studied journalism;
- 75 percent of broadcast journalists who won DuPont Awards never studied journalism;
- 58 percent of journalists awarded Nieman Fellowships never studied journalism, and;
- 51 percent of journalists awarded Knight Fellowships at Stanford University never studied journalism.
(From Getting Journalism Education Out of the Way by Betty Medsger.)
Le Monde is not making itself into a teaching hospital; it is mentoring promising journalists who bring with them a variety of experiences and perspectives. By attracting the best talent from across all disciplines, rather than the most educated from within journalism, they are betting that their work will become stronger and more inclusive.
If half of all practicing doctors never studied medicine, then it would make more sense to model journalism education after medical education (read Eric Newton’s recent argument for this approach and the article Shaping 21st Century Journalism). The current state of American journalism suggests that trying to make journalism a professional field from the ranks of undergraduates has some built-in limitations.
Perhaps our efforts should be spent on creating educational programs that attract the smartest, most creative and passionate storytellers, programmers and community-minded citizens we can find. Perhaps the curriculum of the Le Monde newsroom is exactly what would excite a group of people who might never sign up for an undergraduate curriculum that focuses on newswriting and technology.
Right now, accredited journalism schools teach a curriculum shaped in large part by the professionals who serve on The Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications. Instead, what if we developed a curriculum designed to attract the brightest and most creative students to journalism? How might journalism be changed by changing the students who study it?
Two enlightening posts over the past couple of weeks:
– Jonathan Stray’s “What is it that journalists do?”
– Jeff Jarvis’s News articles as assets and paths
clarify an urgent need in journalism education — to move beyond writing basic AP stories as the focus of our early training and socialization of young journalists.
Stray expands Barbie Zelizer’s argument that we need to open up what ‘counts’ as journalism (see Taking Journalism Seriously, 2004). Educators would do much to help the cause of journalism if we didn’t drill into young students a definition of journalism that makes it hard for them to consider anything other than traditional news stories as legitimate.
Teaching students how to define news and what counts and doesn’t count as “journalism” can take up a lot of energy in high school and college journalism curriculums. Minimal attention to community management, math skills, databases, Facebook, Twitter, advocacy, writing with voice, aggregation, curation, post-publication editing, citizen journalism and a host of new practices strain our own credibility as well as constrain the imagination of ourselves and students.
Form does not define journalism nor does the author. As Stray says:
There are a lot of different roles to play in the digital public sphere. A journalist might step into any or all of these roles. So might anyone else, as we are gradually figuring out.
But this, this broad view of all of the various important things that a journalist might do, this is not how the profession sees itself. And it’s not how newsrooms are built. “I’ll do a story” is a marvelous hammer, but it often leads to enormous duplication of effort and doesn’t necessarily best serve the user.
It’s the “do a story” reflex that is the heart of most journalism education programs. We pride ourselves on teaching the news story and we honor the students who do it well. But if the story is only a small part of the many things journalists do now and in the future, then focusing so much on this one thing is the wrong approach for most of our classes.
What if we took as a starting point all the activities that Stray lists as important activities of journalists and added the collection of assets that Jarvis lists — what kind of curriculum might we develop then?
We’ve made a first round attempt at this in our undergraduate curriculum, distilling “what journalists do” to three core activities:
- Tell stories
- Use data
- Be social
We are expanding on these and developing course syllabi now. Stray and Jarvis and many others are helping us enlarge our definition of journalism so that our students will be prepared to contribute and change their communities, not just the industry.